Why is a turkey called a turkey? And why is Turkey, too?

Part 1: Why is Turkey called Turkey?

Here’s a thought for the Christmas dinner table (assuming you didn’t buy goose this year).

Since the 14th century, the English word Turkey has referred to ‘the land of the Turks’. Chaucer used it in The Book of the Duchess.

The word ‘Turk’ dates back much further: past the French ‘Turc’, and the Medieval Latin ‘Turcus’, to the 4th Century Byzantine Greek ‘Tourkos’ and the Persian ‘turk’. The first recorded use of ‘Türk’ in Old Turkic (a forerunner to modern day Turkish) was found in Göktürk inscriptions from the 8th century.

The original meaning of the word is unclear. In Turkish, ‘turk’ means strength. But it has, like any good word, meant different things to different people at different times – from ‘beautiful youth’ to ‘barbarian’ or even ‘robber’.*

Turkey-turkey

Turkey                                       turkey

So where does a comically bald flightless bird from North America fit into this?

Part 2: Why is a turkey called a turkey?

Trade.

And confusion.

The confusion is due to another bird: the guinea fowl.

The guinea fowl is native to East Africa.

guinea fowl-turkey

Will the real turkey please stand up?

As you can see, it looks a bit like a turkey. Apparently, they also taste similar.

Before anyone went to America to discover its taxonomic cousin, the guinea fowl was imported to Europe via the Ottoman Empire. So, it became known as the turkey-cock, or turkey-hen.

When settlers in the New World saw fat, bald, flightless birds that looked like those they knew as ‘turkey-cocks’ and ‘turkey-hens’, they used the same name to refer to them.

As the North American bird grew in popularity, it usurped its East African cousin to take the title of ‘turkey’.

Merry Christmas from everyone at Verbal Identity.

 

*Tangentially speaking, here’s an oddity: the Chinese word ‘tu-kin’, from c.177 B.C.E referred to a people living south of the Altai mountains. Coincidence?